They found 19 men who shared this same anomaly, which is a "reliable marker for ancestral relationships." There will probably be other living relatives to Ötzi, especially when a larger sample of men is studied.
, found that the Iceman had a number of cavities, severe wear on his tooth enamel from eating grain that was not finely ground, and periodontal disease.
Instead they were ancient cattle skin from the kinds of seasonally migrating animals cared for by herdsmen in the region of the Alps where he was discovered." The lead researcher, Klaus Hollemeyer of Germany's Saarland University, told reporters that MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry "was faster and more reliable than methods based on DNA analysis." It has modern day applications, too.
Hollemeyer explained that "This method could..used in checking the purity of products made from animal hair, such as Cashmere wool." It can also be used to determine if clothing uses banned animal products (such as dog or cat fur).
Vanzetti and Bondioli believe that over the centuries, as the ice of the glacier occasionally thawed, his body was carried downhill in the melting water and came to rest where it was eventually found.
The researchers write that the two back wounds "suggest a wound age of the back lesions of less than few hours survival time." What the researchers don't mention is the head wound, for reasons that are not clear.
Intact blood clots in his arrow wound would show damage if the body had been carted up the mountain...." Bondioli disagrees.
He believes that the artifacts found on the melting glacier would have been randomly distributed.
A reanalysis of Ötzi's findspot, along with the distribution of the artifacts located there, has prompted archaeologist Alessandro Vanzetti (Sapienza University of Rome), Luca Bondioli (National Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography in Rome) and three other scientists to conclude that the Iceman was killed at a lower altitude, carried up the mountain, and placed on a burial platform of stones.
This platform was some 20 feet uphill from the place where Ötzi's body was found in 1991.